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Word building

As  we said before, SUFFIXES do change the part of speech. And they are used, not to change the meaning of the word, but the class of the word. So we change the way we use them in a sentence. This way we turn verbs into nouns, nouns into adjectives, adjectives into adverbs, and so on...

  • Noun formation- the most common suffixes in English are -tion, -ity, -er, ness, -ism, -ment, -ant, -ship, -age and -ery. Being -tion far more used than any other.

Suffixes added to a Verb


action/instance of V-ing

alteration, demonstration
expansion, inclusion, admission


person who V-s
something used for V-ing

advertiser, driver
computer, silencer


action/instance of V-ing

development, punishment, unemployment


person who V-s

assistant, consultant


action/result of V

breakage, wastage, package


action/result of V

denial, proposal, refusal, dismissal


action/result of V

preference, dependence, interference
attendance, acceptance, endurance


action/instance of V-ing
place of V-ing

bribery, robbery, misery
refinery, bakery

Suffixes added to another Noun





person concerned with N

astronomer, geographer


doctrine of N

Marxism, Maoism, Thatcherism, Buddhism


state of being N

friendship, citizenship, leadership


collection of N

baggage, plumage 


Suffixes added to an Adjective





state or quality of being A

ability, similarity, responsibility, curiosity


state or quality of being A

darkness, happiness, deafness


state or quality of being A

urgency, efficiency, frequency


  • Verb formation

Suffixes added to FORM VERBS with the meaning “cause to be”




stabilise, characterise, symbolise, visualise, specialise


differentiate, liquidate, pollinate, duplicate, fabricate


classify, exemplify, simplify, justify


worsen, fasten, shorten, darken


  • Adjective formation






capable of, fit for, tending to, likely to V

trainable, flexible


relating to, having the nature of N

musical, personal


in the act or process of V-ing

vigilant, militant



adjectives formed from emotional Verbs

interested, bored,



having the quality of N

dependent, intelligent


comparative ending of Adjectives

bigger, faster


superlative ending of Adjectives

biggest, fastest


full of, characterized by N

beautiful, bountiful


pertaining to, connected with, resembling N

volcanic, angelic


having the qualities of, formed from N

realistic, socialistic


derived from some Latin Verbs

infinite, polite


having a tendency to or the nature of N

attentive, massive


full of; like N

verbose, grandiose


full of; having the qualities of N

poisonous, anxious


  • Adverb formation -As in your language, English adverbs are words that modify or describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. And, as in Catalan or Spanish, there are countless adverbs that can be created from adjectives, and there is a fairly small number of adverbs that don't follow that pattern.     In English, the basic rule is that adverbs can be created from many adjectives simply by adding "-ly" at the end.    But some are irregular.
    • Hard / Fast are both adjectives and adverbs.
    • Good --well